Transducer play a vital role in the area of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process needs to be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another.
This is a device which converts one kind of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electrical power is converted into a power energy.
Types of transducer:
There are two types of transducers, they are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: torque measurement is actually a device which converts the given non-electricity into electrical power itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and more are the best examples of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is actually a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer would be the examples for the Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (like quartz) that have an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it generates an electric charge and, when an electric field is applied, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” comes from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or the other way around. Basically any type of piezo mechanism can be called button load cell. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to operate voltage changes and thus are often used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are employed in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The advantage of a piezo speaker spanning a magnetically driven speaker depends on the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness from the piezo ceramic plates that are utilized to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the ultrasonic transducers are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly boosts the amplitude while lowering the input power simultaneously, i.e. the system is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are usually known as a piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are generally operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very widely used for pressure sensing applications. These are sometimes used along with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, for example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive means that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in hkjrzk energy and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a great selection for entry-level systems. Other sensors are available when leading edge performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated underneath the right conditions, the latest generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can work for 10’s of billions of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Due to their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a great selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the proper information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration by offering the correct amplitude and phase output for the piezo actuator. The sensor can even be weight sensor, configured to respond to strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. According to Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the more reactive forces it will cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system with a counter mass may be integrated and driven with a signal of the opposite phase. With a little fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out as well as the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on the surrounding structures. This trick is often found in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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